п»їNamsrai Bayar, CENTRAL WESTERN EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY,
Course: Personal behavior- open public opinion-
empirical democratic procedure
Prof. L. Markowski
Fall semester 2000/2001
Process of politics change in Mongolia during transition period (1990-2000)
The institution of formal institutes of democracy and political liberty were speedy and bloodless, following the start of democratic protest and reform in 1990. The ruling Mongolian People's Innovative Party (MPRP) showed enough foresight and pragmatism avoid any bloodshed, instituted constitutional amendments to let multi-party polls, and then adopted a new democratic constitution in January of 1992. Mongolia has placed 4 parliamentary and several presidential elections since 1990, which were approved as free, democratic and fair. The first competitive parliamentary polls, held in 1990, were competitive by six political functions. Today there are over 20 political parties performing in Mongolia. In the report I would like to show process of personal changes in Mongolia within the framework of economical reforms during last ten years.
Coalition government and economic shock remedy, 1990-1992
Within Soviet insurance plan in the middle of 1980s generated simply by glasnost and perestroika had impact on changes in policy orientations of Mongolia. Soviet Union began to pull away some soldiers stationed in Mongolia under agreement in mutual military assistance. Monetary and specialized assistance of Soviet Union, amounted much more than 30 percents of Mongolia's gross home-based product, experienced diminished substantively. In fresh situation, Mongolia had no other choice than change monetary orientations. In1987, Mongolia initiated diplomatic associations with the USA and agreed protocols intended for trade and scientific cooperation with Chinese suppliers. Simultaneously, community unrest with existing point out establishment is continuing to grow, demonstrations and meetings of mass demonstration, requiring abolition of one-party system and planned overall economy in a favor of multi-party system and market economic system, resulted resignation of communism hard-liners' leadership of Mongolian People's Innovative Party /MPRP/ and call totally free multi-party elections.
Fresh leadership of MPRP announced itself being a follower of Mongolian national idea and supporter of reform, democracy and human being rights. The tactics helped bring success to MPRP in first competitive multi-party parliamentary elections in July of 1990. MPRP received regarding 60% in the popular political election. The resistance democratic wing parties received combined 35% of ballots, and it could be considered as a success of democratic forces. Just how, which fresh elected legislative house was formed, mirrored transitional stage of means of democratic reconstructs. The elections were accomplished under outdated, communist metabolic rate: parliament (People's Great Hural) was not operating on everlasting basis, having session twice a year for a short period. Among sessions, functions of parliament were replaced by Presidium, members that were equiped by management of communism party. Actually the legislative house played minor role assessing with the prominent communist get together. New, multi-party system necessary substantial corrections to these kinds of state of things. Therefore , the role of long lasting functioning legislative house was provisionally fulfilled by simply " Small ChamberвЂќ(Baga Hural)- an institutional body, chosen from people of legislative house on the proportionate basis.
Fresh government with excitement pursued change; it suffered other resistance parties and appointed level of resistance experts, especially economists, at the top executive positions in operations. The government designed a program of wide-scale privatization. But privatization did not move forward as anticipated. The setup of privatization plan was poor handled, ineffective and corrupt. Moreover, reformers, recruited from opposition parties, involved in financial speculation that triggered the huge loss of more than 80 percent of the country's foreign currency reserves. Soviet...